2022 French legislative election

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2022 French legislative election

← 2017 12 June 2022 (first round)
19 June 2022 (second round)
2027 →

All 577 seats of the National Assembly
289 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout47.5% (Decrease1.2 pp) (1st round)
46.2% (Increase3.6 pp) (2nd round)
  First party Second party
  Échanges avec Richard Ferrand, Président de l'Assemblée nationale, à la Faculté de droit Paris-Est 01 (cropped 2).jpg Jean Luc MELENCHON in the European Parliament in Strasbourg, 2016 (cropped).jpg
Leader Richard Ferrand Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Party LREM LFI
Alliance Ensemble NUPES
Leader's seat Finistère's 6th[a] Bouches-du-Rhône's 4th[b]
Last election New alliance New alliance
Seats before 346 seats 66 seats
Seats won 245 seats[c] 131 seats[c]
Seat change Decrease 101 Increase 67
1st round
%
5,857,364
25.8% Decrease6.5%
5,836,079
25.7%[d]Increase1.1%
2nd round
%
8,002,419
38.6% Decrease10.6%
6,556,198
31.6% Increase19.9%

  Third party Fourth party
  Le Pen, Marine-9586 (cropped).jpg Christian-Jacob-2020 (cropped).jpg
Leader Marine Le Pen Christian Jacob
Party RN LR
Alliance UDC
Leader's seat Pas-de-Calais's 11th Seine-et-Marne's 4th[b]
Last election 8 seats 130 seats
Seats before 7 seats 120 seats
Seats won 89 seats 64 seats
Seat change Increase 82 Decrease 56
1st round
%
4,248,537
18.7% Increase5.5%
2,568,502
11.3% Decrease7.5%
2nd round
%
3,589,465
17.3% Increase8.5%
1,512,281
7.3% Decrease18.0%

2022 French Legislative Election Results Map First Round.svg
Constituency results after the first round

2022 French Legislative Election Results Map Second Round.svg
Constituency results after the second round

Prime Minister before election

Élisabeth Borne
LREM

Elected Prime Minister

TBD

Legislative elections in France were held on 12 and 19 June 2022 to elect the 577 members of the 16th National Assembly of the Fifth French Republic. The elections took place following the 2022 French presidential election, which was held in April 2022.[3] They have been described as the most indecisive legislative elections since the establishment of the five-year term in 2000 and reversal of the electoral calendar in 2002.[4]

For the first time since 1997, the incumbent president of France does not have an absolute majority in Parliament. As no alliance won a majority, it resulted in a hung parliament for the first time since 1988.[5]

The legislative elections were contested between four principal blocs: the centrist presidential majority Ensemble coalition, including Emmanuel Macron's Renaissance, the Democratic Movement, Horizons, and their allies; the left-leaning New Ecologic and Social People's Union (NUPES), encompassing La France Insoumise, the Socialist Party, Ecologist Pole, and the French Communist Party, among others; the Union of the Right and Centre (UDC), including the Republicans, the Union of Democrats and Independents, and their allies; and the far-right National Rally (RN). The NUPES alliance was formed in the two months following the presidential election, where the left-wing vote had been fragmented; it consisted of the first French Left alliance since the Plural Left in 1997.[6]

In the first round, there was some controversy among the Ministry of the Interior and news media about which bloc finished first, as both NUPES and Ensemble obtained about 26% of the vote.[2] They were followed by RN on about 19% and UDC with about 11%.[7] Turnout for the first round was a record-low 47.5%.[8] In the second round, where turnout was higher than that of 2017, Macron's Ensemble coalition secured the most seats (245) but fell 44 seats short of an absolute majority.[9][10][c] NUPES was projected to win 131 (Ministry of the Interior) or 142 seats (Le Monde), while the far-right RN became the largest parliamentary opposition as a party (89). UDC received enough seats (64 or 71) to be a kingmaker in the next government but suffered losses.[9]

The results were perceived by political commentators as a blow for Macron,[10][11] and created the potential for political instability and gridlock.[5]

Talks among the various parties to form a stable majority government began on 21 June.[12]

Background[edit]

Following the 2017 French legislative election, the incumbent president Emmanuel Macron's party, La République En Marche! (LREM), and its allies held a majority in the National Assembly (577 seats). The LREM group had 308 deputies, the Democratic Movement and affiliated democrats group had 42 deputies, and Agir ensemble, which was created in November 2017, had 9 deputies.[13] Although a proposal to have part of the French Parliament elected with a proportional representation system was included in Macron's platform in 2017, this election promise was not fulfilled.[14] A similar promise was made by François Hollande during the 2012 French presidential election.[15]

Macron, from the centrist LREM, had defeated Marine Le Pen, leader of the far-right National Rally, 66–34% in the 2017 French presidential election.[3][16] The 2022 French presidential election was held on 10 and 24 April. As no candidate won a majority in the first round, a runoff was held, in which Macron defeated Le Pen 58–41% and was reelected as President of France.[17] In the first round, Macron took the lead with 27.9% of votes, while Valérie Pécresse, the candidate for the Republicans, took under 5% of the vote in the first round, the worst result in the history of the party or its Gaullist predecessors. Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, received 1.75% of the vote, the worst in the history of the Socialist Party (PS).[18] With more than 30% of the vote,[5] it was the best result for French far-right figures since the founding of the Fifth French Republic with the 1958 French presidential election.[19] Jean-Luc Mélenchon of La France Insoumise (LFI) came third in the first round with 21.95% of the vote and 1.2% behind second-placed Le Pen, also coming first in the 18–24 and 25–34 age groups, as well in Île-de-France, the most populous region of France.[20][21]

In the context of the legislative election common participation, as the largest French Left force in the presidential election,[22][23][24] LFI sought to unite the main left-leaning parties around the banner of the New Ecologic and Social People's Union,[6][25][26] or NUPES.[27][28] Discussions were held with Europe Ecology – The Greens,[29][30] including the Ecologist Pole,[31][32] as well as the French Communist Party,[33] which joined the coalition on 2–3 May 2022, respectively;[34] the PS reached an agreement to join the coalition on 4 May, which was confirmed by a National Council party vote on 5 May.[35][36] This resulted in the first wide left-wing alliance since the Plural Left in the 1997 French legislative election.[6]

Discussion with the Federation of the Republican Left (FGR), which wanted to join NUPES,[37][38] went unanswered;[39] the FGR then formed alliances with the Radical Party of the Left, which internally rejected integration into NUPES, and the dissident minority in the PS, among the miscellaneous left. Their candidates presented themselves as part of the "secular and republican" left between Macron and Mélenchon.[40] The New Anticapitalist Party announced it would not enter the coalition due to what they called insurmountable ideological differences with the PS,[41][42][43] while Lutte Ouvrière announced that the party would run its own slate separate from NUPES, which they believe to be reformist.[44]

On 5 May 2022, LREM changed its name to Renaissance, introducing its big tent coalition for the legislative election made up of the presidential majority parties called Ensemble Citoyens (Ensemble).[45][46] On 16 May, Macron appointed Élisabeth Borne as Prime Minister, replacing Jean Castex. Borne, a member of Renaissance and formerly of the PS, was serving as Macron's Minister of Labour, Employment and Economic Inclusion prior to her appointment as prime minister. She is only the second woman to hold the office.[47]

Electoral system[edit]

The 577 members of the National Assembly, known as deputies, are elected for five years by a two-round system in single-member constituencies. A candidate who receives an absolute majority of valid votes and a vote total greater than 25% of the registered electorate is elected in the first round. If no candidate reaches this threshold, a runoff election is held between the top two candidates plus any other candidate who received a vote total greater than 12.5% of registered voters. The candidate who receives the most votes in the second round is elected.[48]

Dates[edit]

According to the provisions of the Electoral Code, the election must be held within the sixty days which precede the expiry of the powers of the outgoing National Assembly, attached to the third Tuesday of June, five years after its election, except in the event of dissolution of the National Assembly.[49] The end of the mandate of the Assembly elected in 2017 is set for 21 June 2022. The dates for the legislative elections in mainland France were set for 12 and 19 June.[50] Declarations of candidacy must be submitted no later than 20 May for the first round and 14 June for the second round.[51] French nationals who live abroad were able to vote in the days preceding the ballot.[52]

Major parties and alliances contesting[edit]

Below are the major parties and alliances contesting the elections, listed by their combined results in the previous elections. According to Le Journal du dimanche, the elections are mainly contested between three blocs: a left-wing bloc (NUPES), a presidential bloc on the centre-right (Ensemble), and a far-right bloc.[4]

Party or alliance Main ideology Position Leader
Ensemble La République En Marche! and allies Liberalism Centre Stanislas Guerini
Democratic Movement Liberalism Centre to centre-right François Bayrou
Horizons Liberalism Centre-right Édouard Philippe
UDC The Republicans and allies Liberal conservatism Centre-right Christian Jacob
Union of Democrats and Independents Liberalism Centre to centre-right Jean-Christophe Lagarde
NUPES La France Insoumise and allies Democratic socialism Left-wing to far-left Adrien Quatennens
Europe Ecology – The Greens and allies Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Julien Bayou
Socialist Party and allies Social democracy Centre-left Olivier Faure
French Communist Party Communism Left-wing to far-left Fabien Roussel
National Rally and allies Right-wing populism Far-right Jordan Bardella
UPF Debout la France and allies National conservatism Right-wing to far-right Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
Les Patriotes French nationalism Right-wing to far-right Florian Philippot
Reconquête and allies French nationalism Far-right Éric Zemmour

Deputies not standing for reelection[edit]

Opinion polls[edit]

Local regression of polls conducted

Results[edit]

First round[edit]

After the first round, the New Ecologic and Social People's Union (NUPES) and Ensemble Citoyens (Ensemble) obtained about 26%. Amid significant losses on the right-wing of the political spectrum for the Republicans (LR) and the Union of the Right and Centre (UDC),[5] results for Emmanuel Macron's Ensemble alliance showed it was now the centre-right, having performed strongly among the traditionally centre-right electorate of UDC.[7] The French far-right achieved mixed results; while the National Rally (RN) achieved 18% and was likely to obtain the necessary seats to form a parliamentary group, Éric Zemmour's Reconquête reached 4%, and both he and the party failed to win a seat, and former RN leader Marine Le Pen had to go through the second round for her seat due to low turnout.[7]

In contests between NUPES and RN candidates, officials from Ensemble said they would decide on a "case-by-case basis" on whether or not to support a candidate.[7] Élisabeth Borne, Prime Minister of France, said: "Our position is no vote for RN." At the same time, she expressed support only for NUPES candidates who in her view respect republican values.[53][54] The first round confirmed that La France Insoumise (LFI) within NUPES and among the French Left, while the centre-left dissidents achieved a much lower numbers of votes like the 2022 French presidential election; of the over 70 dissident candidates, only 15 qualified for the second round.[55]

The first round was marked by a record low turnout at 47.5%.[8] Additionally, there was some controversy in the results between the Ministry of the Interior and French news outlets, such as France Info and Le Monde, in particular on whether NUPES or Ensemble finished first;[56] This was due to disagreements on whether left-wing candidates should be considered within the NUPES framework or not;[2] similar discrepancies also existed for UDC and other alliances.[57] NUPES finished either second (per the Ministry of the Interior) or first (per Le Monde), slightly behind or ahead of Ensemble (25.75–25.66% per the Ministry of the Interior and 26.1–25.9% per Le Monde).[58][59][60]

Second round[edit]

The second round had an higher turnout than that in the 2017 French legislative election but did not match that of the first round in 2020. The Ensemble alliance slightly underperforming polls and lost their absolute majority in Parliament,[61] while still winning the most seats.[9] NUPES slightly underperformed from polling but still managed to substantially increase their proportion of seats and was to reported to have won 131 seats per the Ministry of the Interior. RN substantially overperformed polls to win an unprecedented 89 seats and become the largest parliamentary opposition group due to each component party of NUPES intending to form their own parliamentary group,[62][63] eclipsing the UDC coalition, which received enough seats to be a kingmaker in the next government but lost seats as expected, and was projected to win 75 seats.[9] It was the best performance for the far right in the era of the French Fifth Republic,[64] and the best overall since the late 19th century.[19] Several news outlets, such as Agence France-Presse, gave a different result as to the final seat count, with Ensemble on 247, NUPES on 142, and UDC on 64, respectively, per Le Monde. This was due to differences as to candidates, particularly in the French overseas constituencies, being classified as members of these alliances or not.[1]

The elections resulted in a hung parliament, as Ensemble had only a relative majority.[10] It was the first hung parliament since the establishment of the five-year term after the 2000 French constitutional referendum,[11] as well as the first relative majority only since the 1988 French legislative election, in which the incumbent president did not have an absolute majority in Parliament.[5] The overall results were seen as a disavowal and major blow for Macron, with a risk of political instability and gridlock.[11] Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire called the outcome a "democratic shock", and said that if the other blocs did not cooperate, "this would block our capacity to reform and protect the French".[10] Prime Minister Borne commented: "The result is a risk for our country in view of the challenges we have to face."[10] LR, the leading party of UDC, was thought to be the kingmaker and potentially play a role for Macron to keep his presidential majority;[7] however, Christian Jacob, the president of LR and the leader of UDC, stated that his party would remain in opposition, meaning Macron's party would not remain in control of the legislature.[65][66] Mélenchon called the results "disappointing" and said that NUPES and the French Left should form a united, single parliamentary group to avoid RN from becoming the largest opposition group in Parliament,[67][68] which was refused by leaders of Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV), French Communist Party (PCF), and Socialist Party (PS).[69]

National results[edit]

Summary of the 12–19 June 2022 National Assembly election results
National Assembly 2022.svg
Parties and coalitions First round Second round Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats +/-
Ensemble ENS 5,857,364 25.75 1 8,002,419 38.57 244 245 Decrease 105
New Ecologic and Social People's Union NUPES 5,836,079 25.66 4 6,556,198 31.60 127 131 Increase 79
National Rally RN 4,248,537 18.68 0 3,589,465 17.30 89 89 Increase 81
Union of the Right and Centre UDC 2,568,502 11.29 0 1,512,281 7.29 64 64 Decrease 66
Miscellaneous left DVG 713,574 3.14 0 443,282 2.14 22 22 Increase 10
Miscellaneous right DVD 530,782 2.33 0 231,071 1.11 10 10 Increase 4
Regionalists REG 291,384 1.28 0 264,779 1.28 10 10 Increase 5
Miscellaneous centre DVC 283,612 1.25 0 99,145 0.48 4 4 Increase 4
Sovereignist right[e] DSV 249,603 1.10 0 19,306 0.09 1 1 Steady 0
Miscellaneous DIV 192,624 0.85 0 18,295 0.09 1 1 Decrease 2
Reconquête REC 964,775 4.24 0 0 0 New
Ecologists ECO 608,314 2.67 0 0 0 Decrease 1
Far-left EXG 266,412 1.17 0 11,229 0.05 0 0 Steady 0
Radical Party of the Left PRG 126,689 0.56 0 0 0 Decrease 3
Far-right EXD 6,457 0.03 0 0 0 Decrease 1
Total 22,744,708 100.00 5 20,747,470 100.00 572 577
Valid votes 22,744,708 97.80 20,747,470 92.36
Blank ballots 362,193 1.56 1,235,844 5.50
Null ballots 149,306 0.64 480,962 2.14
Turnout 23,256,207 47.51 22,464,276 46.23
Abstentions 25,697,541 52.49 26,125,084 53.77
Registered voters 48,953,748 48,589,360
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Results by constituency[edit]

2022 French legislative election map results by constituency

Aftermath[edit]

Due to the Ensemble's loss of 100+ seats, they were now 44 seats shy of a majority in the National Assembly, and need to find support among other MPs from both the left and right side of politics to help build a working majority government. President Macron asked Prime Minister Borne, who offered her resignation, to stay in office with the same cabinet in an effort to gain time according to analysts to form a stable government, with or without Borne.[12] LFI requested a vote of no confidence to be held on 5 July.[70][71]

Despite not ruling out any deal with any party, it is speculated that Macron and Ensemble are eyeing a deal with UDC.[12] Despite previously stating otherwise,[7] UDC's Jacob confirmed that he would take part in talks with Macron.[12] RN's Le Pen and the leaders of two NUPES parties, Olivier Faure (PS) and Fabien Roussel (PCF), stated that they would take part in talks with Macron. LFI's Mélenchon confirmed that he would not take part in talks.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lost his seat
  2. ^ a b Did not stand
  3. ^ a b c Several news outlets, such as France Info and Le Monde, give a different result as to the final seat count, with Ensemble on 247 and NUPES on 142, respectively. This is due to differences as to candidates, particularly in the French overseas constituencies, being classified as members of these alliances or not.[1]
  4. ^ Disputes arose as to the precise percentage of the NUPES vote in the first round, with the Ministry of the Interior claiming a total of 25.66%, while Le Monde and NUPES claim a total of 26.1%, with the discrepancy arising as a result of disputes as to which candidates are counted as members of NUPES.[2] For the purpose of this article, the figures of the Ministry of the Interior are used.
  5. ^ It includes the Union for France led by Debout la France and Les Patriotes.

References[edit]

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